High Antioxidant Activity of Pucuk Merah (Syzygium oleina) Leaf and Zinnia (Zinnia elegans) Flower Extracts
A study on the antioxidant activity of natural sources is very crucial to explore their benefits, especially for food, medicine, as well as cosmetic applications. In this work, the antioxidant activities of pucuk merah (Syzygium oleina) leaves and zinnia (Zinnia elegans) flower were examined. Pucuk merah leaves and zinnia flowers were extracted using an acidic ethanol solvent by a simple maceration method for 24 hours. The color of the obtained pucuk merah leaf extract was red, while the zinnia flower extract was yellowish-brown. UV-visible spectrophotometer showed that the pucuk merah leaf extract has anthocyanin as the main part and chlorophyll as the minor part. On the other hand, zinnia flower extract contained carotenoid as the main part, as well as small parts of anthocyanin and chlorophyll. The antioxidant activity test was carried out by using 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as the antioxidant assay. It was revealed that the inhibitory concentration at 50% (IC50) values of the pucuk merah leaf and zinnia flower extracts were 25.83 and 20.16 mg/L, respectively, while the antioxidant activity index (AAI) of the pucuk merah leaf and zinnia flower extracts were 1.55 and 1.98, respectively. These results showed that both pucuk merah leaf and zinnia flower extracts have strong antioxidant activity, and thus very potential to be used as great antioxidants.
Surono, I.S., Nishigaki, T., Endaryanto, A., and Waspodo, P., Indonesian biodiversities, from microbes to herbal plants as potential functional foods, J. Fac. Agric, Shinshu Univ., 2008, 44(1–2), 23–27.
Purnomo, T.A.B., Kurniawan, Y. S., Kesuma, R. F., and Yuliati, L. Selection of maceration solvent for natural pigment extraction from red fruit (Pandanus conoideus Lam), Indones. J. Nat. Pigm., 2020, 2(1), 8–12, doi: 10.33479/ijnp.2020.02.1.8.
Juliana, Indrawati, R., and Yuliati, L., Effect of pH and storage time on the stability of papaya and carrot extracts, Indones. J. Nat. Pigm., 2019, 1(1), 25–29, doi: 10.33479/ijnp/2019.01.1.25.
Yuliati, L., Juliana, and Indrawati, R., Tuning the stability of red color natural pigment in fruit extracts by pH control, J. Phys.: Conf. Ser., 2019, 1282, 012070, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/1282/1/012070.
Irshad, M., Zafaryab, M., Singh, M., and Rizvi, M. M. A. Comparative analysis of the antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula extracts. Int. J. Med. Chem., 2012, 2012, 157125, doi: 10.1155/2012/157125.
Montoro, P., Braca, A., Pizza, C., and De Tommasi, N., Structure- antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids isolated from different plant species, Food Chem., 2005, 92(2), 349–355, doi: 10.1016/jfoodchem.2004.07.028.
Pham-Huy, L.A., He, H., and Pham-Huy, C., Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int. J. Biomed. Sci., 2008, 4(2), 89–96.
Willcox, J. K., Ash, S. L., and Catignani, G. L., Antioxidants and prevention of chronic disease, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 2004, 44(4), 275–295, doi: 10.1080/10408690490468489.
Sukemi, Usman, Putra, B.I., Purwati, W., Rahmawati, N.N., and Pradani, S.D.A., Acid Base Indicator from Shoot-Leaves Ethanol Extract of Pucuk Merah (Syzygium oleana), J. Kim. Pend. Kim., 2017, 2(3), 139–144, doi: 10.20961/jkpk.v2i3.11864
Anggraini, T., Antioxidant activity of Syzygium oleana, Pakistan J. Nutr. 2017, 16, 605–611, doi: 10.3923/pjn.2017.605.611.
Yamaguchi, M.-A., Terahara, N., and Shizukuishi, K.-I., Acetylated anthocyanins in Zinnia elegans flowers, Phytochemistry, 1990, 29(4), 1269–1270, doi: 10.1016/0031-9422(90)85440-Q.
Boyle, T. H. and Stimart, D. P., Anatomical and biochemical factors determining ray floret color of Zinnia angustifolia, Z. elegans, and their interspecific hybrids, J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci., 1989, 114, 499–505.
Lobo, V., Patil, A., Phatak, A., and Chandra, N., Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health, Pharmacogn. Rev., 2010, 4(8), 118–126, doi: 10.4103/0973-7847.70902.
Zaid, H., Raiyn, J., Nasser, A., Saad, B., and Rayan. A., Physicochemical properties of natural based products versus synthetic chemicals, Open Nutraceuticals J., 2010, 3(1), 194–202, doi: 10.2174/1876396001003010194.
Wilkes, K.; Howard, L.R.; Brownmiller, C., and Prior, R.L. Changes in chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) polyphenols during juice processing and storage, J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, 62(18), 4018–4025, doi: 10.1021/jf404281n.
Basuki, N., Harijono, Kuswanto, and Damanhuri. Studi pewarisan antosianin pada ubi jalar. Agravita, 2005, 27(1), 63–68.
Torskangerpoll, K. and Andersen, M. Ø., Colour stability of anthocyanins in aqueous solutions at various pH values, Food. Chem., 2005, 89(3), 427–440, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.20004.03.002.
Jackman, R. L., Yada, R. Y., Tung, M. A., Speers, R. A., Anthocyanins as food colorants-a review, J. Food Biochem., 1987, 11(3), 201–247, doi: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.1987.tb00123.x.
Fiedor, J. and Burda, K., Potential role of carotenoids as antioxidants in human health and disease, Nutrients, 2014, 6(2), 466–488, doi: 10.3390/nu6020466.
Kurniawan, Y. S., Fahmi, M. R. G., Yuliati, L., Isolation and optical properties of natural pigments from purple mangosteen peels, IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng., 2020, 833, 012018, doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/833/1/012018.
Vankar, P. S. and Srivastava, J., Evaluation of Anthocyanin Content in Red and Blue Flowers, Int. J. Food Eng., 2010, 6(4), 7, doi: 10.2202/1556-3758.1907.
Şakar, D., Karaoğlan, G. K., Gümrükçü, G., and Özgür, M.U., Determination of anthocyanins in some vegetables and fruits by derivative spectrophotometric method, Rev. Anal. Chem., 2008, 27(4), 235–249, doi: 10.1515/REVAC.2008.27.4.235.
Chaudhary, B. and Mukhopadhyay, K., Solvent optimization for anthocyanin extraction from Syzygium cumini L. skeels using response surface methodology, Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 2013, 64(3), 363–371, doi: 10.3109/09637486.2012.738647.
Von Loetzen, C. S., Jacob, T., Hartl-Spiegelhauer, O., Vogel, L., Schiller, D., Spörlein-Güttler, C., Schobert, R., Vieths, S., Hartl, M.J., and Rösch, P., Ligand recognition of the major birch pollen allergen bet v 1 is isoform dependent, PLoS ONE, 2015, 10(6), e0128677, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0128677.
Croce, R., Müller, M. G., Bassi, R., and Holzwarth, A.R., Carotenoid-to-chlorophyll energy transfer in recombinant major light-harvesting complex (LHCII) of higher plants. I. Femtosecond transient absorption measurements, Biophys. J., 2001, 80(2), 901–915, doi: 10.1016/S0006-3495(01)76069-9.
Martín J., Navas, M. J., Jiménez-Moreno, A. M., and Asuero, A. G., Anthocyanin Pigments: Importance, Sample Preparation and Extraction, in: Soto-Hernandez, M., Palma-Tenango, M., and Garcia-Mateos, M. R., Phenolic Compounds - Natural Sources, Importance and Applications, IntechOpen, doi: 10.5772/66892.
Indriatmoko, Heriyanto, Limantara, L., and Brotosudarmo, T .H. P., Composition of photosynthetic pigments in a red alga Kappaphycus alvarezi cultivated in different depths, Proced. Chem., 2015, 14, 193–201, doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2015.03.028.
Scherer, R. and Godoy, H. T., Antioxidant activity index (AAI) by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil method, Food Chem., 2009, 112, 654–658, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.06.026.
Deng, J., Cheng, W., and Yang, G., A novel antioxidant activity index (AAU) for natural products using the DPPH assay, Food Chem., 2011, 125(4), 1430–1435, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.010.031.
Copyright (c) 2020 Tantyo Ardy Bintoro Purnomo, Dr. Leny Yuliati (Author)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The manuscript will be made Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided that the Contribution is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.